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CLAT Mini Mock Series by iQuanta: 18th June 2024

iQuanta has launched a Mini Mock Series covering all the sections of the CLAT exam, these questions have been handpicked by our faculty based on the latest CLAT exam pattern.

Instructions:-
1. Attempt all the questions.
2. Once you have completed all the questions of a particular section click on the submit button for scores and explanations then move to the next sections.
3. For each correct answer, you receive 1 mark. For this mock, there is no negative marking.

English Language

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

According to neo-Malthusians, population problem (as it presently exists in underdeveloped countries) is an inevitable result of the reproductive behaviour of man. The theory of Demographic Transition, however, rejects this view and asserts that the population explosion implying a sudden spurt in the rate of population growth is a transitory phenomenon that occurs in the second stage of demographic transition due to a rapid fall in the mortality rate without a corresponding fall in the birth rate. According to the Theory of Demographic Transition, every country passes through three stages of demographic transition. These stages are empirically verifiable.
In the first stage, both birth and death rates are high. Hence the population remains more or less stable. Even if there is some increase in the population because birth rate is somewhat higher than death rate, it does not pose any serious problem. Generally in backward economies where agriculture is the main occupation of the people, per capita incomes are low. This inevitably results in a low level of standard of living. Mass of the population in these countries is deprived of even the basic necessities of life.
The second stage of demographic transition is characterised by rapid growth of population. With the beginning of the process of development, the living standards of the people improve, the education expands medical and health facilities increase and governments make special efforts to check small pox, malaria, cholera, plague etc. These developments generally bring down the death rate. But as long as society remains primarily agrarian and the education remains confined to a narrow section of the society, attitude of the people towards the size of family does not change radically and the birth rate remains high. In this situation population increases at an alarming rate. In the second stage of demographic transition, the birth rate generally stays around 35 to 40 per thousand, whereas the death rate comes down to roughly 15 per thousand. Consequently population increases at an annual rate of about 2 per cent or more. In a country where economy has not grown adequately for a long time and a sizable section of the population has remained below the poverty line, this is really a grave situation. Economists call it population explosion.
In the third stage of demographic transition the birth rate declines significantly and thus the rate of population growth remains low. A country can hope to overcome the problem of population explosion if the process of industrialisation accompanied by urbanisation is fast and education becomes widespread. Only in this situation birth rate shows a tendency to fall.
[Extracted with edits from Aids And Population Education by Binod K. Sahu, published by Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 2004]

CLAT MMS English 18th June 2024-Master

Current Affairs and General Knowledge

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

In his maiden speech after the 2024 Lok Sabha election results were declared on Tuesday, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) will continue to take big decisions in its third term and strike hard against corruption.

Stating that the Constitution of India is a “guiding light”, Mr. Modi said the “NDA has always worked for all sections of society and 25 crore people were pulled out of poverty, including many from the SC [Scheduled Caste], ST [Scheduled Tribe] and OBC [Other Backward Class] categories.”

CLAT MMS GK 18th June 2024

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Arbitration has been the toast of the legal community for a long time. It has been long expected that arbitration will replace business litigation to a great extent one day. Lawyers have been encouraging parties to have an arbitration agreement in all their business transaction documents for more than two decades now. However, arbitration has not been proven to be effective too often.
A lot of lawyers have begun to re-evaluate if they should put in those arbitration clauses blindly in the agreements they draft. Also, a lot of people who have already put in binding arbitration clauses in their agreements, are finding arbitration very difficult to navigate and too expensive when disputes actually arise.
Even after 23 years since the introduction of Arbitration and Conciliation Act of 1996, arbitration seems to be slowly evolving and not really making a dent on pendency of litigation situation and more costly unlike litigation. The Act empowers the arbitrator to terminate the proceedings where without any sufficient cause, the claimant fails to communicate his statement of claim within the stipulated period. If the respondent fails to submit his statement of defence within the predetermined period, the arbitrator shall continue with the proceedings without treating such a failure in itself as an admission of claimant’s allegations.
Would it ever become the mature alternative that Indian businesses can safely rely on for reliable, fast, efficient and cost-effective dispute resolution, especially given the terrible state of civil justice?
The BN Srikrishna Committee Report on Institutionalisation of Arbitration Mechanism in India states that a lack of governmental support to promote arbitration is also one of the reasons why arbitration has not become the most preferred way of resolution. The report goes on to suggest that there should be awareness programmes and training to make arbitration a more popular concept. However, such awareness campaigns are very unlikely to attract parties to arbitration given the way it functions at present.
Quality of arbitration and arbitrators can often be suspect. The courts have settled the legal proposition that an arbitration agreement is not required to be in any particular form. Courts in India regularly interfere and do not respect party autonomy. The award is expected to be up for appeal or review in the higher courts and that really does not instill confidence in the parties involved in disputes. These factors are putting off parties from adopting arbitration. At present, it appears that only in a handful of matters involving very large claims, arbitration is still viable in India.
[Extracted, with edits and revisions, from why arbitration is not working in India?, article by Livelaw]

CLAT MMS Legal 18TH June 2024

Logical Reasoning

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Online misinformation and disinformation, often termed “fake news,” have become significant global challenges. Platforms like social media, once celebrated as agents of truth and unity, have transformed into hubs for the spread of misleading and false information. Governments and regional entities are trying to navigate this evolving threat, further complicated by technological advancements like Artificial Intelligence tools.

Different strategies have been adopted globally. Singapore has introduced strict laws against online misinformation, while the European Union has developed a self-regulatory code of practice and imposed content moderation requirements on platforms. India is addressing this issue through the Digital India Bill, following the IT Rules 2021, which mandates intermediaries to prevent the spread of blatantly false information.

A comprehensive strategy is essential to address these threats, combining platform regulation, accountable fact-checking, and the responsible use of emerging technological solutions. While AI can exacerbate misinformation, AI tools, when combined with human intelligence, can address harmful online content effectively. However, strategies must be tailored to India’s unique needs, incorporating global best practices. Misinformation varies globally, necessitating a nuanced approach. For instance, during the Covid-19 pandemic, India faced a significant amount of misinformation, but its nature differed from the West.

Research by Logically Facts indicates that 72% of Indians trust social media platforms that employ fact-checking, compared to 52% in the US and under 39% in the UK. This underscores the importance of tailored strategies and fact-checking in India. Automated hate speech detection systems, effective in English and European languages, struggled in countries like Myanmar and Ethiopia due to language nuances.

Fact-checking organizations are pivotal in India’s fight against misinformation. India has the world’s largest fact-checking community, working across various languages and media. Collaborations between the Indian government and fact-checking organizations can further harness this community’s potential. India’s framework should establish transparent standards for fact-checking, considering India-specific factors.

Combating misinformation requires agility across multiple fronts, including platform regulation, media literacy programs, and the responsible use of automated tools. India’s robust fact-checking community and leading software industry position it to develop a multifaceted approach to misinformation. This approach can serve as a model for other nations, especially those in the Global South. India, as the world’s largest democracy, can create a regulatory framework that safeguards freedom of speech and the press while countering misinformation. India can lead by example, offering a framework that balances accountable self-regulation, emerging technology, and effective penalties, protecting the public from misinformation’s harms while upholding democratic principles.

CLAT MMS Logical Reasoning 18th june 2024

Quantitative Techniques

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Automobiles are the most preferred mode of transport because they allow us to cover large distance quickly. Resultantly, vehicles have been developed that run on diesel, petrol and even on electricity, which is a remarkable innovative development. During a survey about

the percentage wise distribution of cars in four different states, the information regarding ratio between the diesel engine cars, petrol engine cars and electric cars was collected. Total number of cars for which data was collected was 8000. Of these, State 1 had 15% of

the total cars in the ratio of 3:4:1 (diesel, petrol and electric); State 2 had 20% of the total cars in the ratio of 5:3:2 (diesel, petrol and electric); State 3 had 30% of the total cars in the ratio of 4:5:3 (diesel, petrol and electric), and; State 4 had 35% of the total cars in the ratio of 7:5:2 (diesel, petrol and electric).

Based on the above information, answer the following questions.

CLAT MMS Quants 18th June 2024